Sunday, December 4, 2011

European aid to relocate unemployed

Eight blocks to extend until 2013 the European aid to relocate unemployed

Germany, United Kingdom, Holland, Denmark, among others, oppose the expansion.
Were intended to aid the relocation of unemployed victims of the crisis.
Spain is the country that European fund resources has received since 2008.

A blocking minority consisting of eight member states - Germany, UK, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Latvia - have kept extending until 2013 the European aid to relocate unemployed who have been dismissed as a result of the crisis.

The European Union has a Fund Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) to support the process of retraining of unemployed victims of offshoring , although since 2010 and as consequence of the economic crisis where new assumptions related to the impact of the crisis that are applicable until the end of this year.

The European employment ministers discussed the issue at a meeting in Brussels during a session in which they have come to negotiate up to four proposals for the commitment to try to bridge the gaps, but none have succeeded.

With this decision the 27 felled the expansion of applications of the fund during 2012 and 2013, so it will not be eligible to cases of crisis and closes the door to change it until 2014, when it begins a new financial year.

Brussels was in favor of extending to 2012 and 2013 the possibility that countries could use the fund to co-finance job layoffs that have not been caused by the relocation but by the impact of the economic crisis.

Spain, many injured

Spain, a country that more resources EGF has received since its creation in 2008, is among the Member States "clearly support this expansion" , according to diplomatic sources, because the extension has been applied the last two years has presented more of records.

Spain has received more than 35 million since 2008 to help find employment to 9,600 fired According to the European Parliament, the Spanish authorities have obtained more than 35 million euros since 2008 aimed at training and help finding jobs for laid off 9,600 people in various sectors.

Holland , one of the countries that have received grants from this fund, remains opposed to allowing the impact of the crisis to remain in 2012 and 2013 reason to qualify for this subsidy.

Netherlands, Germany and the UK form the core of countries that put pressure on European Union Community contain spending in line with the ajuestes who are taking the 27 nationwide

Graphic Process Guide

The processes in printing are several very complex, which is why designers graphics we know from start to finish to achieve our objective , that of properly communicate any message.

The knowledge of these processes does not imply a mastery of them, however as we know and understand better, the better decisions we make about the same and this is reflected in the results you get.

The postpress is the last process of production after printing, and includes all the finishing processes, manipulated, joining pieces and packaging.

Knowing all these processes we may be able to choose correctly between the different types of paper that exist and determine the method most appropriate print and the type of finishes that will give our printed, according to our budget and we should give the diffusion our message.

General Objective
At the end of the course the student will differentiate the types of finishes that are carried out within the postpress process and select the most appropriate in accordance with the requirements of presentation and quality of the project graph to make.

Topic 1.

The process of design and its relationship with the postpress

1.1 Features and materials for the production of a project best graphic design .

1.2 Selection of the system of printing.

1.3 Selection of substrates and inks.

1.3.1 Substrates

1.3.2 Role

1.3.3 Other media

1.3.4 Inks

1.3.5 Other materials

1.4 Selection of finishes.

1.5 Quality control of products printed.

Learning Objective
At the end of the topic the student will evaluate the importance of all the separate elements of the postpress stage that must be considered within a graphic production process.

The printing process can be divided into the following 4 stages:

- Design Phase

- Pre-press stage

- Stage of production or release .

- Stage or post press finishing

The responsibility of the graphic designer is not limited only to contribute to aesthetics and creativity in solving a problem of communication , you must know all the tools you have at your fingertips, the limitations and scope with each, and the costs and time it takes at each step, with this knowledge, the designer will be able to provide an adequate solution to every problem of communication that comes your way. Summarizing we can say that the graphic designer's responsibility starts when you decide to solve the problem that has been proposed, and ends, literally, having the solution thereof in his hands, ie to have the product finished graphic. And it must respond to the expectations that were raised from the outset in terms of quality, cost and communication of the message.

Of the four stages that a form is submitted, it is only the first in the design, where it enters play our creativity and in which we intervene directly in the other three come into play and our knowledge of the intervene indirectly by monitoring since these stages are usually performed by third parties.

Definition of postpress

The printing process does not end when the paper comes with the image printed. After that still need to make all finishes to the left printed as planned These finishes can be many and varied cuts, folds, elevations, bindings, coatings, laminates, pierced, hot-stamping, etc.. all these processes are called postpress. In short we can define the set of postpress processes followed after printing, so that our form is completed and ready for use in communicating a message.

1.1 Features and materials for optimal production of a graphic design project
It is equally important to know that you are printing with which materials and the printing system to be used.

The same original, printed on different paper types with different inks and other printing system can give opposite results. You need paper and ink set which will be specified for a particular print, to work well with both the print system to be used, as with the aesthetic result you are looking for in print.

1.2 Selection of the printing system
The following explains the six systems most important print, operation and method of work .

It also marks a relation between the printing system, the quality it offers and its use, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Printing systems are:

1. Offset (sheets)

It is an indirect printing process in which the shape containing the picture (board) does not touch the media, but that transfers the image to another cylinder ( rubber ) print. This printing system is ideal for medium run lengths, ie from 1.000 copies in sizes from letter to eight trades.

1.A Offset (rotary)

The printing system is equal to the specifications, the difference is the greater speed of printing, the paper comes in rolls. A rotating coil is mainly divided into five parts: carrier coils, drives printers , superstructure, folding, conditioning bands.

Types of rotary. Presses for newspaper / press printing are intended for daily or weekly press, characterized both by its large paging , high-speed runs and need of completion. Most of these machines include finishing units, folding and cutting.

2. Typography

The typography is to deposit the ink on a printing element etched in relief and back, to apply, then a sheet of paper. The pressure exerted on this sheet will allow the ink deposited on it. The level difference created by the engraving prevents the ink reaches the gaps.

In this process involved printing the paper machine, type or print and ink. This type of machine is used to Suajes, pleco and folio.

3. Flexography

Flexography is a variant of type. It is printed on presses with rubber photopolymer plates or cylindrical plastic , bearing the image in relief. Very fluid inks. Also called aniline printing.

It is used to continuously print jobs, especially in flexible plastic film holders for product packaging and adhesive labels for packaging chain.

4. Serigraphy

It consists of a fabric stretched over a framework in which there are areas without blocking where the ink will seep up to the media. The other areas will be covered to keep the ink will not be missed. This printing process involves:

- The substrate (paper, plastic, cardboard) of different thicknesses

- Silk-screen display

- The standard

- The machine

- The ink.

The substrate can be any type, flat and even irregular volume .

5. Gravure (cylinder)

Is a cylinder of steel covered with a thick layer of copper smooth, in which, by means of gravure system or electronic recording, it records the negative image buried in the copper layer. Cavities will be formed and which will endure the ink and paper deposited by pressure.

Huecográfica ink is liquid and contains a large amount of solvent that evaporates quickly and leaves the dry pigment on paper. To speed up the drying process, the paper web, after every body, passes through areas of air or infrared heat.

This printing system is used for large-circulation magazines that require high image quality, since it is able to maintain a stable colored all controlled circulation publication. It is also used for printing plastic and flexible packaging products for food .

The high cost of preparation, is amortized over the printing speed and print quality. This system because it is rotating, also known as rotogravure.

1.3 Selection of substrates and inks
It is important that we take into account the type of substrates and inks used in the production of a graphic, because sometimes these will determine what type of finish we can use it.

1.3.1 Substrates

The substrate is the surface to be printed. It is usually paper, but can be any other material, from plastic films or metal to fabric. The type of substrate used directly affects the final quality of print. In fact, substrates and semiflexible smooth finish, good consistency on the surface, neutral, with appropriate binders, fine porosity and with adequate moisture, allow the best prints. Be careful to choose a suitable printing system to the substrate you want to use. Remember that not everyone has the same capabilities.

1.3.2 Role

Could we imagine a world without paper? Were there now books , magazines, newspapers, if they had not invented the paper? What would not the role of school activity, storage, transport and storage of food or other goods, work in an office , the health staff ? The great development of the paper is due, firstly, the relationship value / price that has allowed prevail over other materials in many applications.

Throughout the centuries, the role has proven to be compatible with the technical advances that have been linked to the development of new paper products: offset paper, paper for fax , photocopier paper, continuous paper for computer , etc.. The paper is therefore perfectly adapted to technical progress (speed of the machines, presses, packaging) and new uses (fax, beverages, food use toilet paper, etc.)..

The printing paper is today an important support and supply vehicle information and advertising . Advances in transmission electronics of data have not reduced, but on the contrary, have increased their use.

Versatility of use

The International Pulp and Paper Directory has recorded a total of 457 varieties of paper. With hundreds of end uses, paper satisfies communications needs, cultural, educational, artistic, hygienic, health, distribution , storage and transportation of all types of goods and, according to them, the product is designed to meet certain requirements texture, strength , softness, absorption, etc..

In the case of paper, there are several points to be taken into account when choosing:

1. Weight, ie, the thickness of the paper. It is measured in g/m2 or points.

2. The color of the paper, since it will affect all other colors , both in tone and brilliance.

3. The finish of the paper, ie the surface can have coatings or textures, can be shiny or matte.


On its surface, we can classify basically paper and cardboard covered, not covered and embossed or textured. For its size can be classified in paper, paperboard and cardboard.

Paper characteristics

The print quality of paper depends on the following physical and chemical characteristics:

• Physical characteristics

- Weight or Size , weight is measured in g/m2 and the size is measured in points. One point is equal to 0.001 to 0.025 in. or mm.

The compressible blankets have proven a valuable resource in the printing of paper slightly out of calibration, maintaining sharpness, smoothness, strength and cleanliness. Agree that the caliber of the papers is as uniform as possible, as poorly calibrated papers originate defective prints.

- Porosity is the number of holes per unit area which presents the role.

Highly porous papers absorb ink printed film and although it favors the drying, the overall appearance of the form may be affected. Remember that paper is a highly porous material, the air content of common stock ranges from 50% to 70%.

- Consistency in its surface , is the degree of detachment from the paper lint.

Papers tend to lack consistency or shredding lint easily during the printing process, often forcing condition inks, reducing its detrimental mordencia concentration.

- absolute humidity is the amount of water considered in percentage points is contained in the paper.

The elongation or contraction experienced by the papers by absorption or water loss is intrinsic to its constitution . Careful studies have shown that the absolute humidity lithographic appropriate roles is between 7% and 8%, but depends on the type of paper and printing process. For stability to preserve its stacks of paper or cardboard with original covers before going to print.

- wrinkles and ripples . If the paper has a serious problem of wrinkles or ripples, not be printed, as a wrinkled paper is not acceptable. Sometimes the paper is wrinkled at the time of print and must find a reason to avoid this problem. Generally moisture differences are the cause of undulations, so you have to put the paper to eliminate the problem.

- Absorption or penetration , is the migration of the ink through the fibers and pores of the paper immediately after printing.

Highly absorbent papers are not usually appropriate for a good offset printing. In anticipation of this, no inks that have made to preserve the printed film on the substrate surface, preventing penetration.

- Flexibility and hardness , is the consistency that has the role in its formation.

Very hard papers are more difficult to print on offset with a suitable quality for printing so that the papers should be used compressible blankets and special inks.

- Address of the fibers . In its initial development roles consist of a dispersed fiber 2% to 98% water. Upon arrival to the band (felt fabric), the fibers will lose water and are moving in the direction of making paper. In sheet-fed presses or sheet, the orientation of the fibers must be parallel to the axes of the unit printer . To determine the direction of the fibers of the paper takes a tear sheet and parallel to one side. Then another cut is torn but perpendicular to the first, the cut that follows a straight line represents the direction of the fibers, while the other will cut zigzag.

The direction of the fibers affects where they go to make bends, because if they are perpendicular to the fiber direction, may not be well marked. And if you plan to bind, it should be fiber direction parallel to the bound

- Tensile strength , is the opposition that has cut the paper when subjected to two opposing forces. Roles of low tensile strength do not support the traction of the forceps and tear.

- Delamination is the tendency for some paper or paperboard, to separate into layers or form bubbles at the time of printing.

This problem may be in paper or low-quality cards that contain a high moisture content.

- Double Sided , differences between the two sides or sides of the paper: cloth and felt, are important through their influence on other properties of paper. As a general rule, the brightness and the smoothness of the two sides is different, so does the tone or intensity of color can be different, because most dyes have higher affinity for the fine and charges, which are in greater concentration in the side felt. The two sides behave differently during printing, so it is important to identify them before starting work.

Identification of the sides

The fabric side is generally rougher than the felt side, due to the mark it leaves the forming fabric of the paper machine, as it is generally open or porous fabric side and closed with a texture side felt fine. Usually this side is printed. The difference in texture between the sides and felt fabric usually noticeable to the naked eye, so folding paper can be identified, directly comparing the two surfaces. On paper with watermark, you can tell because the watermark is usually read by the hand felt.

- Bulk density and apparent, the density of the paper is probably the property most important. Provides information about the structure of the sheet and is related to other properties of paper, especially: porosity, stiffness, hardness and strength, but in fact affects all optical and physical properties except basis weight. It also affects the absorption and ease of printing.

The apparent density of paper is affected by many factors, including: the number of joints between fibers, which depend on the diameter and flexibility of the fibers, the pressing of the wet sheet, the amount of glucose , the presence of materials that fill the gaps on the sheet, and so on. The density of paper or cardboard is its weight per unit volume.

The specific volume or bulk is the reciprocal of the density property, or the volume in cm 3 of a gram of paper. In some cases it is customary to use bulk, when dealing with bulky paperwork, but can be considered equivalent in bulk density and what affects one also applies to the other. This property is important for manufacturers of books because if there are variations of consideration, books will have different thickness, causing problems in their binding. It is also an important property in absorbent paper and pancakes (fluffy roles, such as crepe paper).

- Stiffness is the ability of paper and paperboard or cardboard to prevent deformation when subjected to stress. However, the stiffness is an extremely important property for many uses of cardboard or paper, so that in some cases it is desirable that this is high, such as paper and cardboard for printing or boxes. In contrast to other uses such as facial tissue, requires that the stiffness is very low.

- Paper Smoothness is a property that affects both the appearance and functionality of the paper. From the point of view of printing paper, refers to the perfection of the surface of a paper and to the extent that uniformity resembles the surface of a glass plane. It is said that the paper has a smooth or rough texture, meaning that surface irregularities are small or large. The industry 's role is often called satin finish or the quality of the paper surface or smooth.

The roles are very distinct in their relative smoothness, since smoothness depends on other properties of the paper. The short fibers produce a smoother paper than long fibers. The preparation of the paste and how they are distributed to form the paper fibers in the fabric of the machine, have great influence on the formation and smoothness. Uneven training reduces the smoothness and the basis weight increases.

A good flatness requires the absence of gaps between fibers and fillers, or be free from: brands of cloth or felt, fiber balls, foreign materials and battered areas on the paper.

The appearance of a sheet of paper is determined not only by their physical characteristics stated above, the combination of their optical properties.

- Opacity or transparency.

- Brightness and Color

- Brightness

- Opacity is the property that holds the paper to allow or disallow the passage of light through it.

Opacity will also affect the ability of paper to absorb ink from one side without noticing the other.

To make the paper suitable for printing are considered in terms of opacity is required opacity is 90% to 92%, at least, although there may be exceptions such as vegetables (Opaline).

- Whiteness , is the ability to reflect the role of white light falling on it, and especially the uniformity in reflectance.

- Brightness, is the ability of a paper to reflect light falling on it, ie its ability to mirror, we must be careful not to be confused with whiteness.

- Refined and squaring . It is very important that the papers reach well refined and square cut to print on sheet-fed presses, because if you make the refined dull or nicked blade on the guillotine, or jagged vertical bar at the outlet of the larks ( in the manufacture of paper) will generate a lot of fluff. Therefore, it is desirable that the papers reach well refined, cut square and free of kaolin or charges.

• Chemical Characteristics

- acidity or alkalinity, is the nature acidic, neutral or alkaline paper presents the printable side, ie, its value pH . The pH of the paper affects the drying of the inks, because for every unit increase in the pH of the solution or the surface of the paper, doubles the time of drying of the inks. Papers slightly alkaline neutral on its surface, excellent for printing.

Corporate Visual Identity Manual

This manual of identity corporate response to the need to ensure the correct application of the elements of our Corporate Visual Identity School of Dance .

Develops after a program of design review and plan to translate the personality of the school, giving it a picture own distinct visual.

With the proper use of the elements of this manual will be achieved to preserve the visual identity of the institution and increase the level of symbolic remembrance of each of its elements.

Special cases or offer questions, should be consulted directly with the author of the manual. Proper use of the logo on every piece of communication is critical to creating a strong and lasting image.

The Corporate Visual Identity Manual is a reference tool and work for all those responsible for the proper use of the symbols of the School of Dance "Anima".

This manual provides information on global visual identity of the school, so it is suggested to carefully read the entire contents of the manual and follow each of the indications described in the sections of interest .

For full compliance is suggested to include in the website of the School and in various image formats, the logo and its variations of use.

The correct use of symbols in this manual is under the supervision of the Directorate of Services Multimedia .

Corporate Visual Identity Manual

Set of rules governing the use and application of identity in terms of design. Document in which the guidelines are designed image of the institution. Define rules to follow to print the logo in different internal and external support of the School, especially those that are displayed to the public. The manual describes the signs graphics chosen by our university to display your image and all its possible variations in shape, colors , size, etc.. It explains the form, timing and location of use by including graphic examples. The identity manual is therefore a normative document that must guide the actions of the institution in terms of corporate identity. But above all, a reference manual that should come to know the possibilities graphic visual image of the school.


Perception that a particular person or a group are of an institution. Mental image is linked to what it represents.


The set of specific and personal characteristics of an entity, which is visible and create a memorable and differentiate itself from other entities. The term institutional identity, which we understand their nature specific, involves all of an institution that is: their development, their communication, property, etc..


It is the visual element of corporate identity. It is a set of graphic elements, lines, shapes and colors that make pictorial image of the institution is unique and memorable to the public.


The set of logo and name that works for an entity to a group of people to represent. It is part of the visual identity of an institution that combines the graphics and the typography. The functionality of a logo is its ability to communicate the message you want, and to achieve this requires the use of colors and shapes that contribute to its interpretation . A logo becomes a structure organized graphic semiotic approach seeks to convey a meaning.

Corporate typeface

Font type or font that is used to write a legally binding texts related to the institutional image. The normalization of typography is an additional factor in any visual identity program. Looking give unity and harmony in all presentations.


Colors are determined by the institution who will represent them. Spot colors are located within a record of color, such as PANTONE. Usually these are the only colors allowed by the company to be used in any element of promotion , stationery, signage, publications, uniforms, equipment, etc..

Graphical construction


The name Anima created with the intention to transmit the values ​​of: Essence, Soul , Nudity. Concepts that reflect my view, the actual substance of those beings who enjoy teaching this wonderful art that is dance.

Anima is Latin soul , in the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung analytics refers to "the image of the eternal feminine archetype in the unconscious of a man , who form a link between awareness of self and the collective unconscious, potentially opening a path to the self. "

The text in Dance Expression dance refers to the new school teaches, this is Dance Therapy and Body Language.


It is an imaginary space surrounding the logo and will protect the image of any visual distraction.

This space should not be invaded by any graphic element: text, photographs, drawings , etc.. The area is defined by the minimum margins set out in the example. The area planned for the space will be X (x = a).


The font selected for the image of the school should not be chosen by similarity of features, but it must match scheduled. The sources recommended for essays and other texts such as titles and subtitles, addresses, names, forms , etc., Chalkdust is the same with variations: regular, bold, italic and bold italic, and Rotis Sans Serif AT and its variants: regular , bold, italic and bold italic.


An essential part of any visual identity is defined by your corporate colors. These are the color codes that are to be automatically associated to the image of the school with continued use. It is therefore essential to be reproduced faithfully, avoiding variations that may contribute to confusion and dispersion of the image of the institution.


The reduction of the logo is limited. Its proportions should not be less than 30 mm wide, according to the rules of construction graph. If you need to use a smaller scale , 20 mm wide, for example, you must delete the text "Expression in Dance."


Following the School's corporate colors are possible combinations for the use of the logo color, black and white, negative, as the background of water and background color.



The envelope chosen for the application of this manual is the standard of 220 X 110 mm, because it is the most used.

The study design was done on taking into account the same criteria in the distribution of space and the location of information on size proportional to respecting: logo, reserve area and typography.


The business card should be printed on a white card mate, not less than 180g. Of 4.5 cm by 8.5 cm. Is recommended to produce the cards in AT Rotis Sans Serif font to establish continuity with the logo.

The card has two printing options. Since these one or two faces.


The invitation size is 100 x 150 mm.

The logo is made by the graphical construction. The title must be in 18 pts., The invitation text in 12 pts., And the address information in 10 pts.


The size is A4. The composition should be centered. The logo consists of a graphical construction as subemisores. The title should be in 40 pts. The text information in 16 pts. The name of the person in 30 pts. The name of the event for which the certificate is 30 pts. The date must be in 16 pts., And firms in 12 pts.


The corporate symbols are used in different media and serve to reinforce the value of identity of the institution. Guidelines need the location and characteristics of the logo on the uniforms of the staff .

The uniform is a standardized set of clothes, used by members of the School, while participating in recreational activities or events work.

The logo must always be the main element.

Its size is adapted to the size of clothing.


The logo on the shirts must be located on the left. If it's on a light background, the logo must be in black or red and black and if the background is dark, the logo must be blank.

In case of coexistence with other logos, they must be located on the sides on the sleeves on a smaller scale.

Thursday, December 1, 2011

International Award Educared

Until next May 2 will take place entries to version 12 of these awards, aimed at teachers and students from around the world. This is an opportunity to work with Information Technology and Communication (ICT), conducted in classrooms not be anonymous and that, contrary to this, is recognized internationally.

How can you participate? Very easy: blogs, wikis, webquests, google docs, speaking images, podcast channels or YouTube, educational uses of social networks, among others. Methods and categories depending on whether or not students have had an active role in the development work, you can compete in the following ways: • Teachers with students: in this mode will accommodate all work involving students actively, either by creating and updating a blog, the development of wikis, doing social networking, among others. • Teachers without students: In this mode open to all work performed by teachers without student participation. For example, if you have a blog that publishes content and activities of common interest to the educational community can participate. • There is also the modality Tools Lab: In this mode faculty may participate with or without a group of students do more advanced work and create their own tools, educational applications or widgets. The categories of participation for these modes are defined by the age of the students as follows: Category I (3 to 5 years), Category II (6 to 8 years), Category III (9 to 11 years), Category IV (12 to 14 years) and Category V (15 to 17). What the jury will evaluate? An international jury will award 3 prizes for each category and modality, which includes a gift for students, teachers and educational institution. For its part, the mode "Teachers with students" will have 3 finalists per category will receive a prize for all this to encourage collaborative work between teachers and students. In addition, the jury may award up to 3 special prizes from among all papers presented in each of the following sections: • Works that seek to facilitate access to ICT and education to children with special educational needs. • Work carried out using mobile technology. • collaborative work between teachers and students different countries. • collaborative work between teachers and students from different centers of the country. The work submitted by participants will be evaluated from a pedagogical sense, therefore you must attach by a mandatory specification that is equivalent to 50 percent of the evaluation the end. The memory can be made virtually through a form installed on the website of the 

International Award Educared . Recommendations Awards Registering is easy and there are several channels created by the award to address the concerns and suggestions from teachers and students . Therefore, pay close attention: • Registration Process to Award: Once admitted to the Prize website, you can initiate enrollment by 2 steps. The first is to register as a teacher participant. You only need to enter your email and receive with this information how. Once registered you can submit their work and begin to develop their pedagogical memory. In order to facilitate the registration process and delivery of work, the prize had before it a tutorial that explains step by step to make these processes. To meet click 

• Social networking and contact: To follow step by step process of the Prize, you can make use of social networks, for both teachers and students in participating can use these tools.  Through Facebook , Educared Colombia ordered an information space. You can visit 

. Following the official account on Twitter @ Premio_Educared Award, you can also get information. Visit this social network profile 

The official Messenger Award is premiointernacional @ and certamen.educared Skype.

Route Launch ICT 2011

The Aula Magna of the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana opened its doors to teachers and administrators of the city to invite them to the fourth version on Route Teacher Training in use and appropriation of ICT.

The event was preceded by the Secretary of Education, Felipe Gil Barrera, Dean of the Faculty of Education at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB), Juan Guillermo Pérez Rojas and the Manager of Medellin Digital, Camilo Vergara Yan Gallo. The invitation to the teachers is to integrate this training route for through the programs offered to improve their teaching practices and combine technological skills to enable them to innovate their teaching strategies - learning. "The important thing with these courses is that little by little change their ways teachers teach and students move safely, "said Juan Guillermo Pérez Rojas, Dean of the Faculty of Education at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.

More and more changes and new trends in technology, which makes teachers and trainers of the new generations are left surprised and discover the world of devices and tools that promise to be the best allies for training. "There are so many changes in technology, we can no longer speak of ICT, but TICE (Technology Information, Communication and Entertainment) and that commitment must also be in field of education, "said Manager of Medellin Digital, Camilo Vergara Yan Gallo.

Benefit for private institutions

The Ministry of Education through the Teacher's School, in partnership with the UPB and Medellin Digital, want to continue to offer programs to qualify the educational work of teachers and seek to make ICTs a critical component in the various processes of the institutions education. 's why this year opens the door to private institutions for their teachers and administrators can access these training programs and are increasingly making new proposals to strengthen processes between government and private sector. "The most important is that the we do as Secretariat, results in the quality of education in the city and improve learning for our children and youth, "said Felipe Gil, Secretary of Education. This route teachers want to keep adding to this proposed training this year comes to fourth version, and to date has trained over 600 teachers from 6 000 in the city.

Online registration

To enroll in one of the programs can do so at the end of March in this link .

For more information

Those wishing more information on the programs of the Road Teacher Training in ICT, please contact Susana Castañeda School Teacher. Phone: 385 71 40 or email @ Susana.castaneda

Encuentro Con pedagogical 2011

This year, the meeting was fixed with 15 stands, plus a mobile art studio classroom. All with the purpose of showing the activities conducted at the School of Teacher through classroom workshops, training routes and other allies.

The Yellow Pavilion Plaza Mayor was the meeting place for the educational community of Medellin for the fifth version of the Encuentro, a space for reflection and discussion on improving the quality of education, pedagogic innovation and implementation of new learning environments .

Master School teachers and administrators called to live this experience through online communications and visits to educational centers and institutions.

The day began on Thursday November 17 at 9 am with workshops, lectures and talks in five classrooms, dedicated to the teaching of language, the potential development of teachers, the teaching of science, systematic investigation of the pedagogical practices and meaningful learning experiences of teachers in classroom research.

Little scientists

Such is the case of the program implemented by the Universidad de los Andes and the Ministry of Education of Medellin called "Little Scientists", which seeks to renew the teaching and learning of science experiment at school, through the Teaching Strategy Teaching Inquiry-Based Science (ECBI).

Claudia Vasquez, Program Coordinator, explained that this strategy, with nearly 20 years, was endorsed by several Nobel prizes in the world and is part of the education policy of France.

"In Colombia reached 10 years ago. It began with training for teachers to replicate the experiences, which are 1 to 2 years, a whole plan of training and professional development very well supported. In Antioquia came 5 years ago and is administered by the School of Engineering of Antioquia "he says.

On arrival in Medellin, the program implemented the working tool "Discovery Box", a series of activities, experiments and games in electricity, energy, environment and health, developed by the Siemens Foundation in Germany.

Cardona Dew, Project Coordinator, University of Los Andes, explains that the schools in the cities can be also with the traditional tools of the program, which were developed in the United States also makes an invitation to teachers and principals to to join this cause to teach through inquiry, for which to develop new training sessions next year.

"Human beings learn by doing, observing, manipulating, making mistakes, making do is a natural human being, and what better way to learn science than doing and experiencing. The call for teachers is to give children the opportunity to learn from a learned differently than us, it was chalk and board "concluded Dew Cardona.

57 public schools and 211 teachers in the city have benefeciado of the partnership between the Siemens Foundation, the Ministry of Education of Medellin and the University of the Andes. 

200 business leaders recognized for their contribution to education

Over the past 8 years his work has helped to build a city that commitment to education as the main engine of development.

"Thanks for helping us build a more educated Medellin" was the message from the Secretary of Education, Felipe Andrés Gil, the thanksgiving ceremony held in the Auditorium of the University Founders Eafit.

At the event representatives were present Proantioquia, the private sector, and rectors of public and private universities of Medellin who have joined in the last 2 administrations to this alliance for the benefit of education.

Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Eafit, the newspaper El Colombiano, Medellin Metro Chamber of Commerce of Medellin, among others, were the companies, organizations and recognized universities.

In this pact for education, are 215 organizations that have taken up the challenge of sponsoring 190 educational institutions in programs such as Quality Schools and Colleges for Equality and Coexistence.

Against this, the Secretary of Education noted that the support of one or more sectors of the city in this model of voluntary cooperation has allowed that to date 100 percent of the programs referred to in line 2 of the Development Plan, which Medellin is known as the most educated, have significant results.

"All you have invested in the city that believes in education from infancy through adulthood. You should be proud, for example, of the 97 thousand children the opportunities they have given the Healthy Start program, "said Andres Felipe Gil Barrera to the honorees.

A work of all

The ceremony was a pretext to reflect human value education as the responsibility of all sectors of society, because among other things, whether the public sector and social malfunctions, the private has no future. 
It is therefore evoked the Spanish philosopher and writer Fernando Savater, who says that for many African cultures child's education depends on every tribe and therefore "the whole tribe of Medellin must be committed to the education of its citizens."

Reflection on David Bojanini consistent, Chairman of the Sura, who believes that education "is the duty of all citizens" and therefore this work of social responsibility in education is a natural extension of the private sector.

What is clear is that this public-private joint should not be done from the handouts, but from the capacity building support to guide citizens towards building a more competitive city. This is the private sector contribution of their strengths and not to replace the state between.

"We created more and better opportunities for quality education and always have a private sector company," the Secretary of Education of Medellin, who extended his appreciation to the public for their belief in education as a long-term bet.

This commitment begins to bear fruit and will become more apparent every day, why Andres Felipe Gil Barrera finally invited the 200 business leaders to feel proud to be part of the new history of Medellín, Colombia's most educated .

Friday, April 15, 2011

School Guidance

Choose what school guidance after third grade?

At the end of college, students must make their first career choices: general baccalaureate or technical or vocational education? Advice.

The last year of college, the third grade, actually looks like the first choice of orientation for the vast majority of students. Indeed, they may opt either to continue their education in general and technological that will lead to a general degree or technology which will enable them to pursue higher education or for the professional way that allows earlier entry into active life even though it is still possible to pursue higher studies such as BTS (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur) and DUT (Diplôme Universitaire Technologique).

Several criteria are involved in the choice of orientation: Result school course but also the motivation of the young, his tastes, aptitudes, personal qualities ... Only the combination of these parameters will make an appropriate choice for each individual case because there is no right or wrong choices.

But foremost, it should be familiar with the two main paths open after the third grade to avoid misdirection that it is not always easy to correct afterwards.

Get in general and technological preparation for a Bachelor
Opt for a general and technological intended primarily for students wishing to pursue their studies beyond the tray.

Indeed, in three years (second, first and final), they will prepare a general or technological baccalauréat, sesame true then continue in higher education.

Since the high school reform that began in September 2010 with the implementation of the new class of second (reform will continue in September 2011 with the first class and in September 2012 for the class terminnale), the first year of high school looks like a class exploration: in addition to common lessons which represent about 80% of teaching time, students must choose two courses for exploration , which as the name implies, must allow students to discover , exploring new materials generally for them, which foreshadowed the mainstream teachings of the series they will have to choose at the end of a second to the sixth grade.

Among these lessons exploration at least one must be an education in economics (or PFEG SES) and the second is to choose teaching science, literature, foreign language ...

It is important to mention that to follow a particular educational exploration in no way determines the access to a particular set of tray. For example, opt for SES does not involve getting in series ES, Literature and society as does L-series, and similarly do not follow these teachings can be a barrier to go to these series.

All schools do not offer all the teachings of exploration and access to some may be quantitatively limited, it should therefore be well informed on the various proposals offered by various institutions Prora but also on possible selection criteria.

These two lessons plus exploration is still a novelty of the reform, two hours weekly mandatory that each personalized établissemnt organizes its way either to support or to the deepening or for help in orientation. It may be interesting to learn from different high schools for how they implement this support for custom "glue" the best with the needs of the student.

It is also possible to choose optional subjects (Latin, Greek, art ..) and special facilities such as the European sections, sports sections ... by institution.

The second general and technology can lead to 11 sets of BA:

three are general bins (ES: Economic and Social S: Science; L: literary)
eight are bins technology : STG (science and technology management); STI2D (science and technology industry and sustainable development), STL (science and tecnology laboratory); ST2S (science and technology of health and social ) STAV (Science and Technology of agronomy and life); STD2A (science and technology design and applied arts); hotel and techniques of music and dance.
Choose the career path after 3rd: bac pro A-Level/Higher
The second option available to a student at the end of his years in college is to go to vocational education to prepare a professional baccalaureate, a BEP or CAP. As mentioned above, this alternative is for young people who, presumably, do not wish to continue graduate studies and, therefore, wish to enter more quickly into the workforce.

Container "pro" is prepared by three years (second, first, professional terminal), there are 55 specialties in 19 career fields.

The peculiarity of the second professional, unlike the latter generally is that it begins to prepare a specific professional tray that is selected at the end of third grade.

Teaching is divided between general education and vocational courses with periods of training in the workplace for 22 weeks spread over three years.

The objective of this training is to properly prepare the integration into working life but it is possible to continue his studies in BTS (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur) of the same professional field. Those who attain honors or are even allowed in law.

The reform of the vocational route has resulted in the removal of a large number of BEP (Professional Studies), they have mostly been replaced by a vocational baccalaureate (three years of study instead of two in BEP, this order to expand the training, to a level tray and thus ensure a better integration into the labor market but also to allow to go beyond the tray).

However, there are still some SEN, for example, the BEP "Business hotel and catering" and some agricultural SEN. They are stepping stones to further education in vocational baccalaureate in tecghnologique tray.

The CPC (Certificate of Professional Aptitude) takes two years and form a specific trade. There are over 200 CAPs in industrial, agricultural, commercial, tertiary. This leads to ^ ploma priority to work as vocational training is preferred but may be supplemented by additional terms, patents or even professional baccalaureate course.

Note that gateways are possible between these different configurations

First to college: it is expected that in each college, particularly in relation to the librarian about the actions planned and what direction are sometimes in the sixth. Guides Onisep are distributed to students graduate or are consulted or downloaded from the site , with more specific information for each academy with a location-based search (to find all the training provided in the academy).

Where to find the necessary information to any choice of direction?

At open houses facilities that usually take place during the months of March and April: it provides detailed information on options, specific institutions but also to visit and meet the teachers to ask practical issues on specific lessons delivered.

The IOC (Center for Information and Guidance): various publications Onisep can be consulted and platelets of different schools but above all it is possible to meet with professional guidance to discuss individual projects orientation.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Distance Education degree programs

Students and employees can register to receive a study grant to finance a university education at a distance.

The Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie, which this year celebrates 50 years, offers scholarships each year 2000 through its mobility program. The agency awards stipends to enable candidates to enroll in one of the 75 courses offered. These courses are open to levels of distances (Medicine), Bachelor and Master 1 and 2.

These degree programs are offered by European universities and institutions of Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Madagascar, Morocco, Senegal, Tunisia and Vietnam.

The university offers courses AUF
The Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie has a rich catalog of degree programs, accessible to students and employees in continuing education. The courses are taught at a distance, they are followed in the home country and employees may continue working during their studies. However, it is advisable in this case, release of weekly hours and realize the extra work to investing.

The four levels of study offered in the training catalog AUF
The differing levels of study allows better access to training, depending on the current level of training of the candidate:

University Diploma (DU) in medicine,
Licence (L3)
Master (M1)
Master (M2).
University courses covering five disciplines
Without cover all topics, the choice is structured into five themes, for a total of 75 offers university courses.

Law, Economics and Political Science (10),
Science Society, (11)
Sciences and Engineering (29),
Life sciences and earth, (20)
Humanities (5).
Geographical location of the awarding institution
The distribution of the awarding institution is:

40 degrees offered by European universities,
39 licenses and remote masters are offered by institutions in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Egypt, Madagascar, Morocco, Senegal, Tunisia and Vietnam.
Financing of university fees and educational expenses
Successful candidates are awarded a stipend by the AUF, which allows them to finance:

a large proportion of educational costs,
the university fees.
Generally, it remains a contribution to the candidate listed in the "Application form and conditions" of the proposed curriculum.

Conditions for obtaining benefits of distance education funded by the AUF
AUF grants a certain number of allocations for each course. The conditions attached to the application are indicated for each panel.

Depending on the degree sought, access to training will be conditioned to a degree. Nevertheless, it is possible to envisage a VAE (Validation of Acquired Experience) or VAPP (Validation of professional and personal skills).

Generally, the allocation of an allowance for distance learning by the AUF is intended for candidates residing in a Francophone country in the South, sometimes in the East. However, he must remain for the duration of training in this country (unless exceptional).

There is no mention of the nationality of the candidate, but the place of residence.

Registration procedure for the allocation of distance learning
Each course has an application form and conditions. Therefore, according to them, should consider both the various offers and conditions.

Dedicated website ,
Access to Training Catalog by education levels or by the awarding institutions,
Once considered the curriculum selected, the "Conditions and Application Form", offers the opportunity to file his candidacy.
Agenda calls for nominations of the AUF for year 2011-2012
The deadline for submitting applications is June 10, 2011 for courses starting in September / October 2011.
The deadline is increased to 10 September 2011 for training starting in January 2012.
Back on the nominations, 2010, origins of female candidates and Disparity
In 2010, the AUF has received 12,614 nominations from 63 different countries for the 75 degrees reached by ODL (*) presented. The Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie welcomes this figure, the highest since 2004.

As in the previous four years, they are Cameroonians and the Burkinabé who most answered. Despite a willingness to include women in the program with a priority given to female candidates (with equal scientific quality), they represent only 20%, a figure down for three years.

Each year, the AUF provides the opportunity for young students, employees follow a university course to choose from a diverse catalog of courses in both subjects in grades. The modality chosen, namely ODL, enables candidates to follow their training from home, access to top universities, via the Internet.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Myth of perfect student

The myth of the perfect student school failure and questioned how the French educational supports. Engendered by the teacher / pupil relationship?

In France, the school has historically been the symbol of Republican values ​​and culture inherited from the Enlightenment. Yet since the early twentieth century with the beginnings of compulsory schooling, school failure affects approximately 10% of students, regardless of the time and methods. School failure is stigmatized, and often, instead of blaming the education or the teacher is the student who is beckoned. However, learning is based primarily on the relationship of the student to his master.

Blame it on Voltaire
French pedagogy sometimes seems to want to erase the differences between individuals. Despite his borrowed glances of jealousy toward the North, true role models of academic success and personal well-being, France remains blind to the knowledge of the humanities: chronobiology, developmental psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience itself. The debate around the four-day week is a good example: we have known for decades the times of day and the rhythms of the week are most conducive to learning. But the question posed seems more for adults (organization weekends, holidays ...). So when the child is tired, demotivated or difficulty, it is easier to blame rather than the nonsense of the school system.

Students will perfect that which the master would have wanted to be
The population of teachers is very varied, nearly 65% ​​of women (75% in private), mostly from the middle classes. Pierre Bourdieu is one of the first to loudly denounced the reproduction of the social hierarchy through the school. This application of homogenization is mainly through language: a way of talking (and writing) is recovered, the others are denigrated, particularly because they represent social classes devalued. More generally, there would be one good way to learn and reproduce this knowledge. But learning is an intimate operation that involves more than cognitive skills: personal history, the ability to accept other sources of learning that parents desire to give or not to the adult that he asks ...

Interest of errors: parallel between phylogeny and ontogeny
Adults often tell children that they have the right to be wrong, that's how we learn. This truth does not always hold true in reality where the error may be stigmatized or penalized. However, the error is central to the history of ideas. Zero is a very good example is the basic mathematical concept that has more time to emerge in the course of history (phylogeny) and one that is more complicated to understand for children (ontogeny ). However, the error of the student comes to symbolize the extent of explaining the master and it can be difficult to accept for it. Between what is said explicitly to the students and what they are implicitly asked, there is often a large margin.

The didactic contract: Pride and Prejudice
The didactic contract is an ongoing negotiation and implicit mutual expectations between the teacher and student. This concept has been used to study elective failure: why some students are in great difficulty in a particular subject or why some fail where the majority is success? We've all experienced "darlings" and then "heads of Turkish" attitude and demands of the master are not the same according to the students, as students do not behave identically with all their teachers. The educational relationship is above all a human relationship where communication is also based on implicit information and a dynamic unconscious. Indeed, the relationship of authority which takes place between teacher and student can be an avatar of parent / child relationship.

Our dear soldiers of the Republic Pedagogical deny it enough, they can not do everything: play the role of parents, to be nurses, psychologists, sociologists and educators, in a word always be perfect. However, the plurality of master / child should be better taken into account. Lack of resources is often put forward but the training is now more than ever questioned. The quality of working conditions but it suffers especially students who pay the price: being a student is becoming more and more not to be subject.

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Teachers Training in New Technologies

What are the training opportunities for teachers? What solutions could improve their relationship with IT and ICT?

Is it necessary to force a teacher to use ICT (Information and Communication) if he does not master a minimum? Certainly not! At the time, he will not feel comfortable in his job, can not benefit optimally and will not be inclined to answer any questions from students about these technologies. A huge waste of time should also result if any problem arises, knowing that all is never perfect computer and nobody is immune to a false move or an honest mistake. The teacher must be comfortable in his own way of giving way to remain credible to its students. The solution is therefore the training of teachers in these new technologies.
The training courses organized for teachers

Proper training is essential but would quickly become useless if others do not follow training throughout the career of the teacher. New technologies develop and evolve so quickly, it is preferable that the teacher is always "page" of what the world of ICT can offer in the academic world. Just imagine that today a teacher has been trained to use Windows 3.1 ...

In Wallonia (Belgium), for example, there are many training courses organized, but the problem is the same as for initial training: they are still few and too little depth. Moreover, most of them are primarily in the form of a conference rather than practical training. Moreover, they are rarely required. Therefore free to teachers to enroll or not. Namely they are also often held during school holidays, which really does not motivate most of them ...

It is therefore clear that these continuing education, as proposed earlier today are not expected to trigger the trigger envy among the teacher, disrupting its teaching methodologies through new technologies.
Autonomous or external training

The training courses organized specifically not profitable enough, the teacher is currently brought to form itself to these technologies. If it is already accustomed to them, personal interest, he is a winner down the line. However, if this is not the case, it has an interest in training or external, is trying to get used to these technologies by revealing itself ... but of course it takes time and sometimes the money. We're back on the problems of the real motivation of the teacher in learning about these technologies.
Some possible solutions to address this problem with training ...

First, raise public awareness campaigns and seminars to the adoption of new technologies in language learning, showing what he can do and what it can bring to both teachers but also to students. Practical experiences should be proposed to open the eyes of teachers and show them the benefits of ICT are real.

Then, propose (or impose ...) practical training so that teachers become familiar with computers, gain some confidence and test their own capabilities. Such training should be promoted as genuine aid to teaching and not as restrictive and discouraging. This is certainly the solution that has the greatest influence and fastest results.

It would also be interesting to provide teachers with free materials, online help, tutorials, ... ICT and their actual choices: impose, for example, an e-mail address where they could receive educational information and other ( class schedules, certificates, training proposals, reviews, ...). It is obvious that such information is available online only, exclusively, so they are forced to use these techniques and become familiar.
The contribution of virtual communities

Finally, another idea would be to foster virtual communities of teachers to exchange experiences, ideas and projects while using common tools. An example of this kind of community is seen This is a center for sharing educational resources and an online forum for teachers. It is an opportunity just waiting to grow. However, a criticism can be made: anyone can register (or not teaching), which does not necessarily motivate teachers to talk freely about their business ...

If you're interested, you can find additional information concerning the relationships between teachers and new technologies , as well as the role of technology in our schools .

School system in Germany

Classes in the morning and sports in the afternoon! This statement is a bit synthetic. What are the weaknesses of the model school on the other side of the Rhine?

It is necessary to recall that Germany is a federal state composed of several states. Each Land has its own constitution and is sovereign in matters of culture, organization of police services, municipal law and of course in the field of school education.

In Germany, education is administered by the Länder. The Department of Education at the national level as in France does not exist. Each region is different but still following a national guideline.

Analyze the process of teaching from the very small classes ...

Elementary education

The primary school in Germany is provided by the "Grundschule (basic school) and is compulsory for all children from six years. Education lasts four years with a difference in Berlin and Brandenburg where it lasts six years.

The first mission of the elementary school is to integrate children into society and teach them how to live in community. The goal is not to put children under pressure and in this context, there are no notes during the first two years only oral assessments. Repetition is very rare to not put the child in a situation of failure from an early age.

Teachers have intensive training on pedagogy and on the psychological approach to the child. The emphasis is on new methods of work as the teaching of foreign languages ​​or on group projects. The courses are fairly open to the outside.

Lower secondary education

The organization of the secondary system (12/13 years) is characterized by the division between the choices of students and various educational schools that are different from one Land to another.

Most Länder have "Gesamtschulen" (schools of understanding). If each state has its own schools with very specific names that differ from each other. At this level, schools represent a particular phase of promotion and guidance of the educational path as an adult.

Around the age of 15 years, students entering upper secondary education. The type of school chosen depends on the skills and qualifications obtained at the end of lower secondary education.

Class hours in Germany

In Germany, the school day focuses on a morning compact. Children eat at home after school because there is no canteen.

The 1st and 2nd class (CP and CE1) are four hours per day and the 3rd and 4th grades (CE2 and CM1) have five hours.

These courses are always delivered in the morning from Monday to Friday.

The advantage of this system is that all children have their afternoon to do homework or participate in extracurricular activities like sports, arts activities ... But the problem is that parents organize activities in the afternoon, which is incompatible with working full time.

The number of working women is steadily increasing and the housewife is no longer the dominant model in Germany. This mode of education would require significant resources and infrastructure, such as canteens, child care, summer camps, to accommodate children.

Another problem would also arise. It would appear that the course concentrates on the half-day increase inequalities between children and small children whose parents could afford to fund educational activities in the afternoon.

Found an education system almost identical to Italy. Elementary schools provide, generally 30 hours per week spread over six days. Colleges and high schools, however, for taking classes every morning until 1:00 p.m. Monday through Saturday.

Questioning necessary

The German model is deeply challenged and the government's objective is to develop full-time schools "French".

The low birth rate has also led to promote the school all day. The explanation is simple: In Germany, mothers must care for children in the afternoon. Coupled with the absence of a system of preschool, these time constraints discourage women from having children. Feminists brag so long since the French education system that enables women to combine work and family.

In 2003, the government has implemented a costly program to develop the institutions operating throughout the day. Some schools do not even have a canteen!

Between 2003 and 2006, the quota of students attending school all day has increased from 9.8 to 17.6% and this rate tends to increase.

In summary, the school system must adapt to changing society to give the best to children and to train responsible adults. It is a constant challenge and a challenge for National Education.

Friday, April 8, 2011

Violence among students in schools

A study by the Observatory on school violence showed that 11.7% of students are harassed at school. The ministry is implementing a parade.

Overall, students from ages 8 to 12 feel good about their school. But who said it was a pleasure for all? 11.7% of boys and girls live in a veritable hell on the playground, to the point of having nightmares at night and get going backwards. More than one in 10 students, in fact, suffer all kinds of harassment, abuse, violence, moral, physical and even sexual, even racketeering. This is shown by the study of the International Observatory on Violence in Schools , conducted from late 2009 to end 2010 with 12,326 students in 153 schools and funded by UNICEF .

Noelle, a girl died of harassment
Eric Debarbieux these amazing results presented Tuesday, March 29 at a press conference. What move the Minister of National Education, Luc Chatel, who decided to create a "Scientific Council against discrimination in schools" . Chaired by François Heran, a demographer, former director of the National Institute of Demographic Studies, the Council will rely in particular on the proposals of the Centre of Violence at school.

"According to the study, the phenomena of" victimization "are rather limited since almost nine in ten students (88.9%) report feeling" very well "or" fairly well "at school and more seven in ten say they are "never" abused or "very occasionally", says Agence France-Presse .

"They have always existed, " heads of Turks , wrote France-Soir , a child who, without knowing why, becomes the scapegoat of a group, class. " Europe1 and cite the example of the sad little Christmas, a girl of Haitian descent who died in force harassment. First there was racial abuse, racketeering and then finally chokes in the school yard: "I told him to defend himself," says the mother of Noelle . "Well, she was punished for defending herself and when she complained to her teachers, they answered him:" do not worry, we'll see it later. " A few days before her death she had told the victim of strangulation by another child. "She had a headache. We did not know why. She ended up falling into a coma. "

All kinds of harassment
The first stage of the violence is psychological. A child is a little different, for example, he stutters, is a bit too closed, or too wise during class, or an original or a different culture. This is sometimes enough for him to find marginalized. "Fluffy", "nerd", "rouquemoute" names for birds are not lacking in the playground (...) writes Le Parisien . "We knew qu'enfance does not mean innocence. One could doubt that primary schools are not sanctuaries Care Bears. " Le Figaro proves accurate: "In detail, a little over 16% of children respond to a decked bad name, 25% were abused and 14% have been rejected. "

The second stage, these are the blows delivered during interclass or racketeering between large and small who became his scapegoat. "For physical violence," continues Le Figaro , 17% have already been hit often or very often "tanbdis that" theft and extortion affecting less than 3% of students. "

Followed attacks apparently innocuous but sexual: 20% of students confide they were the subject of voyeurism to the toilet, 14% were forced to undress and 20% forced to kiss another child. Acts whose victims are both boys and girls.

New forms of violence
Dangerous games have emerged in the schoolyard, including the headscarf, this autostrangulation expected to cause strong sensations, or those of the aerosol, salad, silence or vicious circle. Very often it is the scapegoat who are the first victims and sometimes they die, as shown in this survey of TF1 .

Internet also excites the imagination of stalkers. "This phenomenon extends to new technology, says Europe1 : today at 8 years, some students settle their account with Facebook. " This confirms that the blog bigbrowser. Lemonde : "Another cause of depression (Youth) online harassment. (The agency) AP recalls the suicide of this 15 year old girl last year, harassed on Facebook. We also remember the suicide of a young American when his homosexuality was revealed on social networks. tells his side of the hoax which was pitiful victim a young girl on the Internet: "The friends of a teen class will create a fake profile on Facebook and masculine pose as the lover of the girl. They are going to orchestrate the fake suicide fictional boy, accusing their comrade's death (...) The girl was devastated, decides to contact the family to offer condolences and apologize, but in vain. " After several weeks of guilt, the girl learns the truth: this silly game that destroyed was organized by her best friend.

School dropout, truancy, suicidal tendencies
Eric Debarbieux believes it must act quickly to help child victims of such harassment, "A survey of 50 adolescents who attempted suicide showed that all had experienced harassment at school," he says. "Child psychiatrists who inherit adolescent self-esteem have devastated already sounded the alarm," wrote Le Parisien , in an open letter in January to Luc Chatel. Which mandated the same Debarbieux to suggest avenues for prevention in a report to be presented April 12 and is expected to announce measures at national conference held in early May. "

"The authors discuss the consequences of repeated harassment, says his side Le Figaro : school dropout, truancy, loss of self-image, depressive tendencies and suicidaires.Une strong correlation also exists between the act of abusing his classmates during the years spent in school and that experience problems with the law as an adult. "

However, one should not conclude that these cases of harassment occur more in the peripheral problems: "This is another great teaching of the study, said Eric Debarbieux: there is no more harassment schools classified as "PTA" (educational priority, the more difficulty) than in normal schools. "

How to combat bullying?
"If teachers are alerted and trained harassment tends to decline, confirming in an interview with AFP Jean-Pierre Bellon, co-author of Harassment and bullying among students (1). Early sensitization is necessary "because it is a phenomenon that often arises in elementary school before structuring a teenager," he adds. "

On 26 January, a group composed of the particular child psychiatrist Marcel Rufo, the philosopher Edgar Morin and other intellectuals, anxious to see the development of bullying at school, sent an open letter to ministers of National Education, Health, social cohesion, but also to the Halde and the Children's Ombudsman. "We want to draw your attention to the issue of children harassed at school, abuse at the origin of the phenomena of" whipping boy "or" scapegoat. " We therefore take your instances to identify specific and concrete solutions to protect these kids and the entire educational community, "they write.

Eager to fight against this "school bullying (bullying at school), Minister Luc Chatel, chose the same day as the revelation of the study by UNICEF to announce the establishment of the Scientific Council of the cons discrimination at school. There is probably an emergency.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

Tuition and School

Tuition - when school is not sufficient

If the high school level is becoming a burden, often helps only qualified and personalized tutoring.

When tuition is reasonable?
When girls and boys are afraid of drowning in their class and do not dare to talk to the teacher about their weaknesses as they gain deeper technical note values, then it is time to think of the next school tutoring. It has a lot to be observed:

The students are due to stress in a position next to the school also participate in tutoring? Is there perhaps any other commitments, such as the unloved piano lessons that could be compensatory deleted from the weekly schedule? Do the boys and girls enough distraction from learning? Exercise and fresh air are always essential, so that the brain can bring those services. The sports club should not be terminated in favor of tutoring. Of course, should the financial possibilities to be considered: Good Tuition is not usually cheap.

How much is tuition?
Qualified tuition lessons cost, roughly, from 7.50 to 20 € per lesson (45 minutes). Recommended sessions are 60-90 minutes in length, based on age and stamina of the students. Often, the "quantity discounts" to be negotiated. It is important that only one class period of 45 minutes per week usually does not meet the desired purpose.

Individual tuition is more expensive than private lessons in groups. In addition, private tutoring, such as students, in many cases significantly lower than tuition at the Institute. In addition, you can also save frequently when students come to the teacher back home and this is no travel time must be calculated. Students who have no problem learning in unfamiliar surroundings, should take this possibility into account.

Usually it is also worthwhile to carry out any offers of the first school. Many schools offer tutoring, or at least internal homework help, which may already be a first aid. It also saves you money when you speak to students in higher grades. They are technically may not be as competent as a professor or a student with almost a university degree, but their hourly wages are usually more affordable - not to forget that easily develop empathy feelings, as students can empathize more easily with students, they put it in the same situation as the younger ones.

Private tuition or tutoring institute?
Tutoring services often have a far-reaching reputation, they do plenty of advertising and are not difficult to make finding. However, one should look closely at the lessons in each institution is organized: Often the lessons take place in too large groups so that the individual student can not be entrances. Some cram schools organize study groups so that together, even students from different grades and subjects. To what extent parents and students consider this to be credible, it must be checked carefully before a possible application in such a facility.

Private tutoring is usually better to just respond to individual students. In particular, students who require much attention, are better off than in the private lessons in groups. In addition, is also often the opportunity to interact with the teacher into closer contact, it is not the anonymity between parents and teachers, as it sometimes is in tutoring with frequent changes of teachers in the case.

After a careful selection of a good tutor can be said in most cases: the best tuition is worth the price and creates it in the long run to teach the students with better grades and a quality of life.